Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. John Edward Hollister Montagu, 11th. John Montagu, 4. Earl of Sandwich war ein britischer Diplomat und Staatsmann. Er ist heute vor allem bekannt durch das nach ihm benannte belegte Brot, das Sandwich. Der Legende nach spielte John Montagu, der vierte Earl of Sandwich, so leidenschaftlich gern Karten, dass er den Spieltisch zum Essen nicht verlassen wollte.
Der Einhand-EsserPlease note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. John Edward Hollister Montagu, 11th. John Montagu Sandwich Bar, München: 8 Bewertungen - bei Tripadvisor auf Platz von von München Restaurants; mit 5/5 von Reisenden. Shoutout to all you lovely people! Wish you a warm welcome at Montagu Bed & Beers Hostel Innsbruck! Proper holidays or just passing threw? Doesn't.
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Turn left onto Kohler St. Turn right onto Joubert St. Sandwich was postmaster general from to and briefly secretary of state again from December to January Sandwich served again as First Lord of the Admiralty in Lord North's administration from to He replaced the distinguished Admiral Sir Edward Hawke in the post.
In , only three years into his third term, Sandwich commissioned a series of ship models  and a model of Chatham Dockyard  as a gift to George III in an attempt to interest his king in naval matters.
However, Sandwich's overall administration of the navy in the lead up to and during the American War of Independence was traditionally portrayed as being incompetent, with insufficient ships being ready for the outbreak of war with France in In , Sandwich spoke vociferously in opposition to a plan for British America put forth by Benjamin Franklin and the Earl of Chatham.
The cabinet largely followed Sandwich's policy, retaining footholds on the American coast which could be used as naval bases, while retaining the bulk of the fleet at home.
Sandwich's problems increased when Spain entered the war on France's side in giving the Bourbon fleets a numerical advantage over the Royal Navy.
Prior to Keppel failed to persuade Sandwich to ignore technical difficulties and " copper sheath only a few ships"; he was later possibly unfairly to make political capital out of this in The London Magazine , March He had remarked that coppering "gave additional strength to the navy" and he reproached Lord Sandwich with having "refused to sheath only a few ships with copper" at his request, when he had since ordered the whole navy to be sheathed.
The lack of coppering the navy was one of the key reasons leading to Britain losing the Thirteen Colonies.
In the new Navy Board Controller Charles Middleton , who had the major problem at the time with supplying over ships for the American Revolutionary War — , compounded that year by French opportunism in declaring war on Britain to support the American rebels, effectively turned what was a local civil war into a global conflict.
Others followed: Spain in and the Netherlands in Middleton took the view that Britain was "outnumbered at every station", and the navy was required to "extricate us from present danger".
He understood that coppering allowed the navy to stay at sea for much longer without the need for cleaning and repairs to the underwater hull, making it a very attractive, if expensive, proposition.
On 21 January he wrote to the Admiralty, and petitioned King George directly. The King backed him for what was an expensive process for an untested technology, and in May he placed orders at the Portsmouth Docks for coppering a total 51 ships within a year.
During a combined Franco-Spanish fleet was able to sail into the English Channel to threaten the coast of Cornwall in the initial stage of a Franco-Spanish invasion of Britain.
Sandwich was criticised for the failure of the smaller British Channel Fleet to prevent this, although the invasion never materialised.
After , the primary objective in the war was maintaining control over the sugar -rich West Indian archipelago The lucrative sugar trade in the Caribbean was reckoned at the time as being of more importance to British interests than the 13 colonies.
The sugar trade was paying for the costs of the American Revolutionary War — and the Anglo-French War — The Royal Navy's newly coppered ships as yet untested were used successfully by Rodney in defeating the French at the Battle of the Saintes off Dominica in February By the time Sandwich's administration ended, he would take full credit for coppering the fleet as one of his great achievements when defending his record in office in January For several years Sandwich had as a mistress Fanny Murray , the subject of Wilkes' An Essay on Woman , but he eventually married Dorothy Fane , daughter of the 1st Viscount Fane , by whom he had a son, John, Viscount Hinchingbrooke — , who later succeeded as 5th Earl.
Sandwich's first personal tragedy was his wife's deteriorating health and eventual insanity. During his wife's decline, Sandwich started an affair with the talented opera singer Martha Ray.
During their relationship, Ray bore him at least five and perhaps as many as nine children, including Basil Montagu — , writer, jurist and philanthropist.
Sandwich never recovered from his grief. The events surrounding Ray's murder were depicted in a popular novel Love and Madness by Herbert Croft. In a famous exchange with the actor Samuel Foote , Sandwich declared, "Foote, I have often wondered what catastrophe would bring you to your end; but I think, that you must either die of the pox , or the halter.
Sandwich retired from public duty in , and lived another ten years in retirement at what was then the family seat, Hinchingbrooke House , Huntingdonshire,  dying on 30 April Sandwich was buried in All Saints' Church in Barnwell, Northamptonshire , of which only the chancel survives, kept to preserve the Montagu tombs.
Sandwich retired in Despite holding a number of important posts during his career, Sandwich's incompetence and corruption were legendary, inspiring the saying: "Seldom has any man held so many offices and accomplished so little.
Recently, some historians have begun to suggest that Lord Sandwich was not perhaps as incompetent as suggested, but that previous historians have placed too much emphasis on sources from his political enemies.